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Use Case: Electric Arc Furnace Temperature and Oxygen Forecasting

By: Fero Labs Logo light
• April 2024
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Use Case Description


An electric arc furnace (EAF) in a steel plant is a type of furnace that uses electricity to heat and melt scrap metal to produce steel. EAFs are used in the steel industry for their flexibility and efficiency in recycling scrap metal.

The process involves charging the furnace with scrap metal and applying an electric current to create an arc between the electrodes and the metal, which melts the metal to the desired temperature for casting. Tapping — tilting the furnace to pour molten steel — should ideally happen as soon as the molten steel has reached its optimum temperature and oxygen composition.


Establishing fine control of end temperature and oxygen at the EAF is challenging. Measuring temperature and oxygen ppm content is typically only done periodically as probes cannot be placed inside the furnace for continuous measurement. Collecting temperature and oxygen measurements, often multiple times per heat, takes time and over the course of many heats, can reduce the operational throughput of a steel mill.

Precise control of EAF temperature and oxygen is crucial for maintaining steel output strength and adhering to specified standards. Overheating can damage the EAF lining, causing costly repairs and requiring cooling; wasting time and reducing production efficiency. Conversely, under-tapping may result in downstream complications necessitating re-heating and affecting final product quality.

Traditionally, operators adjust the EAF temperature by managing the power supply, relying on their experience, prevailing conditions, and empirical judgment. However, this approach can be subjective, inefficient, and cause fluctuations in operational quality.

Establish precise control of EAF temperature and oxygen content to minimize tap variability and improve throughput.

Precise control of EAF tap temperature and oxygen content enables:

  • Enhanced throughput through accurate temperature and oxygen predictions
  • Decreased energy and gas consumption by preventing overheating
  • Streamlined operations with fewer temperature and oxygen measurements

Fero Labs Solution

Electric arc furnace operators can use Fero Labs software to predict internal furnace temperature and/or oxygen content at specific points during a heat cycle, relative to cumulative energy and gas input. Fero serves as a soft sensor for EAF temperature and oxygen measurement. Additionally, Fero Labs software can provide real-time recommendations for dynamic process control to enable:

  • reduction of energy and gas consumption in the EAF,
  • mitigation of the mill's environmental footprint,
  • stabilizing operations by dynamic adjustments

A Live Fero Analysis for this use case presents a interface for production and quality engineers to monitor production and take action at any moment:


Process & Business Outcomes

Achieve optimum tap temperature faster

With Fero Labs acting as a soft sensor for temperature and oxygen content predictions, fewer temperature measurements need to be taken during production. With Fero reducing the time to reach optimal tap temperature, EAF operators can expect an up to 1.5% increase in throughput.


Energy cost minimization through dynamic operations

With Fero optimizing each batch of steel and providing dynamic process recommendations, stabilizing the process leads to reduced energy consumption. This can result in up to 2% reduction in energy consumption.


Commensurate reduction of Scope 2 emissions and carbon tax costs

With Scope 2 emissions making up 20–50% of EAF steelmaking’s carbon footprint, operators using Fero can expect to see a 5 kg CO2e per steel ton reduction. This correspond to six-digit annual savings in geographies subject to a carbon tax. Fero can provide reporting capabilities that directly track and account for this savings.

Fero Labs Adoption Timeline

Plant teams can collaborate to set up and deploy Fero Labs. Below is a timeline highlighting typical steps. With Fero’s easy-to-use, no-code interface, this can be achieved in a matter of weeks, not months or years.

Data Requirements

Plant teams can collaborate to set up and deploy Fero. Below is a timeline highlighting typical steps. With Fero’s easy-to-use, no-code interface, this can be achieved in a matter of weeks, not months or years.

Activating This Use Case

Consider our Industrial Use Case Playbooks as inspiration and tactical ideas for your team to align on to maximize the efficiencies of your plant.

Each Playbook has a matching Use Case Blueprint which provides more detailed steps to activate each use case within the Fero Labs platform.

If you’re curious to see these in action please book a free feasibility study with our team!

Together, let us continue to push the boundaries of what's possible, driving towards a future where industrial manufacturing is not just efficient and sustainable but truly transformative in its impact on society and the world at large.

Thank you for joining us on this journey, and we look forward to continuing to partner with you in your pursuit of excellence.

Download the entire Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Temperature & Oxygen Forecasting Playbook to access additional tables and details about this industrial use case.